In order to enhance the knowledge base available for Member States to develop effective international responses to firearms
trafficking and related offences, and to facilitate their efforts to ratify and implement the Firearms Protocol, UNODC has
produced a series of legal and technical tools and publications:
This issue paper aimst at illustrating how the collection and analysis of data related to firearms, their parts and components
and ammunition at national and global scales can create an evidence base for strategic decision making at policy and operational
levels and promotes evidence-based action against illicit firearms trafficking and related forms of crime.
The Firearms Protocol and the Arms Trade Treaty: Divergence or complementarity?
This Issue Paper is primarily meant for policymakers, legislators, and practitioners involved in preventing and countering
the illicit manufacture of and trafficking in firearms, their parts and components and ammunition. It reviews the various
links between the Firearms Protocol and the ATT. The Paper focuses on the nature and relationship between the two global instruments,
with the aim of exploring the extent to which they are related, and complement each other.
Ratification Kit - Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking
in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational
The Ratification Kit was designed to assist interested States wishing to consider becoming ratify or accede to the Firearms
Protocol, UNODC-GFP created a Ratification Kit to explain and facilitate the process of ratification of the Protocol. The
purpose of the Kit is to explain and facilitate the process of ratification of the Protocol. This document provides an explanatory
note on the main requirements and notification of obligations under the Protocol as well as alternative template formats of
the ratification and deposit of the instruments.
Model Law Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their
Parts and Components and Ammunition, 2011
The Model Law Against Illiict Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition was
developed in 2010 by UNODC in response to the request of the General Assembly to the Secretary-General to assist State Parties
in strengthen their domestic legal framework in a manner consistent with the international legal regime on firearms. The Model
Law represents a concrete help for policy and lawmakers to translate the treaty language of the Firearms Protocol into domestic
legal provisions and help them in strengthening their legislative regimes on firearms in a manner consistent with the Firearms
Legislative Guide for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols Thereto.
The purpose of this guide is to promote and assist States in their efforts to ratify and implement the Protocol. The Guide
facilitates the understanding of the provisions that are mandatory, optional or only to some degree compulsory under the Convention
and its Protocols thereto, and the elements of those provisions which are particularly essential to ratification and implementation
efforts, and provides detailed and specialized advice on how to interpret. A dedicated part of the Guide is deserved for the
Technical Guide to implement the Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and
Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.
This Paper reviews and analyses the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), approved on 2 April 2013; the Protocol against the Illicit
Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition (Firearms Protocol); the Programme
of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons (PoA), of 2001; and the International
Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons (International
Tracing Instrument or ITI) of 2005 to identify synergies and complementarities between them, and to assist States parties
to these instruments, or those considering accession to them, in implementing the relevant provisions at the national level.
Guiding Templates for Firearms-related Investigations
The Guiding Templates aim at facilitating the process of generating and collecting data on seized firearms and their criminal
context throughout the criminal justice chain. The collected information through these templates, moreover, helps the States
to generate and record all the requested under the UN Illicit Arms Flows Questionnaire (IAFQ), which is the methodology developed
by UNODC to monitor illicit firearms trafficking flows, to identify firearms trafficking trends and patterns at global level,
as well as to collect data requested under SDG indicator 16.4.2.
The Global Study on Firearms 2020 has been developed with the purpose of raising global knowledge on illicit trafficking
in firearms, including its transnational nature and the routes and modus operandi used, by enhancing understanding of this
phenomenon and its links to other serious crimes. Collected data give a unique insight into the patterns of firearms trafficking
globally, regionally and nationally, providing a vital resource for law enforcement, policymakers and public bodies seeking
to reduce the damage caused by the illicit circulation of firearms.
The Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (COP-UNTOC), adopted
at its 5th Session resolution 5/4 entitled "Illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, their parts and components
and ammunition." In paragraph 7 of this resolution the Conference requested the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
"to conduct a study of the transnational nature of and routes used in trafficking in firearms, based on the analysis of information
provided by States on confiscated weapons and ammunition." To read more about the 2015 study please visit:
The report aims to significantly improve the understanding of the scope, characteristics and dynamics of illicit firearms
trafficking into, from and across the European Union and contributing to the evidence base required to efficiently combat
this phenomenon both within the region and globally.
On the occasion of the Tenth Anniversary of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Organized
Crime Convention), the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the Italian and the Colombian Governments and INTERPOL
decided to launch an initiative aimed at facilitating and assisting States in the implementation of the Convention and its
Protocols, by providing them with a compilation of illustrative cases of organized crime, and related "good practices" in
investigative and prosecutorial techniques, as well as in international cooperation in criminal matters. The Digest presents
a compilation of illustrative cases and related good practices in criminalization, investigations, prosecution and legal experiences
in dealing with organized crime and its various forms and manifestations.